What better opportunity to discuss where food comes from, than during lunch time – either before or after eating.

There are a lot of important concepts that children should learn over the course of their education – especially early on. Born to eat, children spend a lot of time being fed but how much time learning food sources? In Tofuna Fysh, there are several exciting ingredients including jackfruit, vegan mayo, and seaweed (some may argue that all vegetables are exciting – to include the celery, onions, carrots, and soy protein that combine to make the full list of ingredients :).

Jackfruit¹ is one of the largest fruits, weighing upwards of 80 pounds, 3 feet long, and almost 2 feet in diameter. Exciting! There is a lot to learn here, many different project-based lessons with a whole range of activities involving this tropical fruit that many Americans don’t get to experience.

Making mayo is a chemistry project that’s surprisingly easy and incredibly interesting. By mixing soy milk and oil in a blender, a process called emulsification occurs and the two liquids combine to become much more gelatinous. Emulsify², that’s a cool word that children will definitely want to know more about.

Seaweed³ isn’t gross! (I thought it was when I was a kid). It’s actually quite flavorful, comes in many varieties, and can be grown sustainably. A great source of iodine – wait, what’s iodine and why is it important? – seaweed is an interesting plant species.

  • Jackfruit
  • Emulsion
  • Seaweed

Jackfruit - Kerala's official fruit
Jackfruit
Opened jackfruit

The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak,[7] is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.[8][9][10]

The jackfruit tree is well suited to tropical lowlands, and its fruit is the largest tree-borne fruit, reaching as much as 55 kg (120 lb) in weight, 90 cm (35 in) in length, and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter.[10][11] A mature jackfruit tree can produce about 100 to 200 fruits in a year. The jackfruit is a multiple fruit, composed of hundreds to thousands of individual flowers, and the fleshy petals are eaten.[10][12]

Jackfruit is commonly used in South and Southeast Asian cuisines.[13][14] The ripe and unripe fruit is used, as are the seeds. The jackfruit tree is a widely cultivated and popular food item throughout the tropical regions of the world. It is the national fruit of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka and the state fruit of the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Kerala is the largest producer of jackfruit in the world.

Etymology

The word "jackfruit" comes from Portuguese jaca, which in turn is derived from the Malayalam language term chakka (Malayalam chakka pazham).[12][15] When the Portuguese arrived in India at Kozhikode (Calicut) on the Malabar Coast (Kerala) in 1498, the Malayalam name chakka was recorded by Hendrik van Rheede (1678–1703) in the Hortus Malabaricus, vol. iii in Latin. Henry Yule translated the book in Jordanus Catalani's (f. 1321–1330) Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East.[16]

The common English name "jackfruit" was used by physician and naturalist Garcia de Orta in his 1563 book Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India.[17][18] Centuries later, botanist Ralph Randles Stewart suggested it was named after William Jack (1795–1822), a Scottish botanist who worked for the East India Company in Bengal, Sumatra, and Malaysia.[19]

Food

Jackfruit flesh

Ripe jackfruit is naturally sweet, with subtle flavoring.[10] It can be used to make a variety of dishes, including custards, cakes, or mixed with shaved ice as es teler in Indonesia or halo-halo in the Philippines. For making the traditional breakfast dish in southern India, idlis, the fruit is used with rice as an ingredient and jackfruit leaves are used as a wrapping for steaming. Jackfruit dosas can be prepared by grinding jackfruit flesh along with the batter. Ripe jackfruit arils are sometimes seeded, fried, or freeze-dried and sold as jackfruit chips.

The seeds from ripe fruits are edible, and are said to have a milky, sweet taste often compared to Brazil nuts. They may be boiled, baked, or roasted. When roasted, the flavor of the seeds is comparable to chestnuts. Seeds are used as snacks (either by boiling or fire-roasting) or to make desserts. In Java, the seeds are commonly cooked and seasoned with salt as a snack. They are quite commonly used in curry in India in the form of a traditional lentil and vegetable mix curry.

Aroma

Jackfruit has a distinctive sweet and fruity aroma. In a study of flavour volatiles in five jackfruit cultivars, the main volatile compounds detected were ethyl isovalerate, propyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, isobutyl isovalerate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 1-butanol, and 2-methylbutan-1-ol.[20]

A fully ripe and unopened jackfruit is known to "emit a strong aroma", with the inside of the fruit described as smelling of pineapple and banana.[10] After roasting, the seeds may be used as a commercial alternative to chocolate aroma.[21]

Nutrition

The flesh of the jackfruit is starchy and fibrous and is a source of dietary fiber. The pulp is composed of 74% water, 23% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat. In a 100-g portion, raw jackfruit provides 400 kJ (95 kcal) and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin B6 (25% DV). It contains moderate levels (10-19% DV) of vitamin C and potassium, with no other nutrients in significant content.

The jackfruit also provides a potential part of the solution for tropical countries facing problems with food security,[12] such as several countries of Africa.[22]

Culinary uses

Packaged jackfruit chunks, seasoned with paprika, tomato and other herbs and spices. When prepared in this way, jackfruit has the look and texture of meat.

The flavor of the ripe fruit is comparable to a combination of apple, pineapple, mango, and banana.[10][13] Varieties are distinguished according to characteristics of the fruit flesh. In Indochina, the two varieties are the "hard" version (crunchier, drier, and less sweet, but fleshier), and the "soft" version (softer, moister, and much sweeter, with a darker gold-color flesh than the hard variety). Unripe jackfruit has a mild flavor and meat-like texture and is used in curry dishes with spices in many cuisines. The skin of unripe jackfruit must be peeled first, then the remaining jackfruit flesh is chopped in a labor-intensive process[23] into edible portions and cooked before serving.

The cuisines of many Asian countries use cooked young jackfruit.[13] In many cultures, jackfruit is boiled and used in curries as a staple food. The boiled young jackfruit is used in salads or as a vegetable in spicy curries and side dishes, and as fillings for cutlets and chops. It may be used by vegetarians as a substitute for meat. It may be cooked with coconut milk and eaten alone or with meat, shrimp or smoked pork. In southern India, unripe jackfruit slices are deep-fried to make chips.

South Asia

Jackfruit in a Sri Lankan curry

In Bangladesh, the fruit is consumed on its own. The unripe fruit is used in curry, and the seed is often dried and preserved to be later used in curry.[24] In India, two varieties of jackfruit predominate: varikka and koozha. Varikka has a slightly hard inner flesh when ripe, while the inner flesh of the ripe koozha fruit is soft. A sweet preparation called chakkavaratti (jackfruit jam) is made by seasoning pieces of varikka fruit flesh in jaggery, which can be preserved and used for many months. The fruits are either eaten alone or as a side to rice. The juice is extracted and either drunk straight or as a side. The juice is sometimes condensed and eaten as candies. The seeds are either boiled or roasted and eaten with salt and hot chilies. They are also used to make spicy side dishes with rice. Jackfruit may be ground and made into a paste, then spread over a mat and allowed to dry in the sun to create a natural chewy candy.

Southeast Asia

In Indonesia and Malaysia, jackfruit is called nangka. The ripe fruit is usually sold separately and consumed on its own, or sliced and mixed with shaved ice as a sweet concoction dessert such as es campur and es teler. The ripe fruit might be dried and fried as kripik nangka, or jackfruit cracker. The seeds are boiled and consumed with salt, as it contains edible starchy content; this is called beton. Young (unripe) jackfruit is made into curry called gulai nangka or stewed called gudeg.

In the Philippines, jackfruit is called langka in Filipino and nangkà[25] in Cebuano. The unripe fruit is usually cooked in coconut milk and is eaten with rice. The ripe fruit is often an ingredient in local desserts such as halo-halo and the Filipino turon. The ripe fruit, besides also being eaten raw as it is, is also preserved by storing in syrup or by drying. The seeds are also boiled before being eaten.

Thailand is a major producer of jackfruit, which are often cut, prepared, and canned in a sugary syrup (or frozen in bags or boxes without syrup) and exported overseas, frequently to North America and Europe.

In Vietnam, jackfruit is used to make jackfruit chè, a sweet dessert soup, similar to the Chinese derivative bubur cha cha. The Vietnamese also use jackfruit purée as part of pastry fillings or as a topping on xôi ngọt (a sweet version of sticky rice portions).

In Taiwan, jackfruit is called 菠蘿蜜. The name is probably related to 菠蘿 (鳳梨 in Taiwan), which means pineapple in Mandarin Chinese. Jackfruits are found primarily in the eastern part of Taiwan. The fresh fruit can be eaten directly or preserved as dried fruit, candied fruit, or jam. It is also stir-fried or stewed with other vegetables and meat.

Americas

In Brazil, three varieties are recognized: jaca-dura, or the "hard" variety, which has a firm flesh, and the largest fruits that can weigh between 15 and 40 kg each; jaca-mole, or the "soft" variety, which bears smaller fruits with a softer and sweeter flesh; and jaca-manteiga, or the "butter" variety, which bears sweet fruits whose flesh has a consistency intermediate between the "hard" and "soft" varieties.[26]

Africa

From a tree planted for its shade in gardens, it became an ingredient for local recipes using different fruit segments. The seeds are boiled in water or roasted to remove toxic substances, and then roasted for a variety of desserts. The flesh of the unripe jackfruit is used to make a savory salty dish with smoked pork. The jackfruit arils are used to make jams or fruits in syrup, and can also be eaten raw.

Wood and manufacturing

Jackfruit tree

The golden yellow timber with good grain is used for building furniture and house construction in India. It is termite-proof and is superior to teak for building furniture. The wood of the jackfruit tree is important in Sri Lanka and is exported to Europe. Jackfruit wood is widely used in the manufacture of furniture, doors and windows, in roof construction,[10] and fish sauce barrels.[27]

The wood of the tree is used for the production of musical instruments. In Indonesia, hardwood from the trunk is carved out to form the barrels of drums used in the gamelan, and in the Philippines, its soft wood is made into the body of the kutiyapi, a type of boat lute. It is also used to make the body of the Indian string instrument veena and the drums mridangam, thimila, and kanjira.

Cultural significance

Developing jackfruit

The jackfruit has played a significant role in Indian agriculture for centuries. Archeological findings in India have revealed that jackfruit was cultivated in India 3000 to 6000 years ago.[28] It has also been widely cultivated in Southeast Asia.

The ornate wooden plank called avani palaka, made of the wood of the jackfruit tree, is used as the priest's seat during Hindu ceremonies in Kerala. In Vietnam, jackfruit wood is prized for the making of Buddhist statues in temples[29] The heartwood is used by Buddhist forest monastics in Southeast Asia as a dye, giving the robes of the monks in those traditions their distinctive light-brown color.[30]

Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh.[24] It is the state fruit of the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu and one of the three auspicious fruits of Tamil Nadu, along with the mango and banana.[31][32]

Cultivation

Jackfruit leaves

In terms of taking care of the plant, minimal pruning is required; cutting off dead branches from the interior of the tree is only sometimes needed.[10] In addition, twigs bearing fruit must be twisted or cut down to the trunk to induce growth for the next season.[10] Branches should be pruned every three to four years to maintain productivity.[10]

Stingless bees such as Tetragonula iridipennis are jackfruit pollinators, so play an important role in jackfruit cultivation.[33]

Production and marketing

In 2017, India produced 1.4 million tonnes of jackfruit, followed by Bangladesh, Thailand, and Indonesia.[34]

The marketing of jackfruit involves three groups: producers, traders, and middlemen, including wholesalers and retailers.[35] The marketing channels are rather complex. Large farms sell immature fruit to wholesalers, which helps cash flow and reduces risk, whereas medium-sized farms sell the fruit directly to local markets or retailers.

Commercial availability

Outside of its countries of origin, fresh jackfruit can be found at food markets throughout Southeast Asia.[10][36] It is also extensively cultivated in the Brazilian coastal region, where it is sold in local markets. It is available canned in sugary syrup, or frozen, already prepared and cut. Jackfruit industries are established in Sri Lanka and Vietnam, where the fruit is processed into products such as flour, noodles, papad, and ice cream.[36] It is also canned and sold as a vegetable for export.

Outside of countries where it is grown, jackfruit can be obtained year-round, both canned or dried. Dried jackfruit chips are produced by various manufacturers.

Invasive species

In Brazil, the jackfruit can become an invasive species as in Brazil's Tijuca Forest National Park in Rio de Janeiro. The Tijuca is mostly an artificial secondary forest, whose planting began during the mid-19th century; jackfruit trees have been a part of the park's flora since it was founded.

Recently, the species has expanded excessively, and its fruits, which naturally fall to the ground and open, are eagerly eaten by small mammals, such as the common marmoset and coati. The seeds are dispersed by these animals; this allows the jackfruit to compete for space with native tree species. Additionally the supply of jackfruit as a ready source of food has allowed the marmoset and coati populations to expand. Since both prey opportunistically on birds' eggs and nestlings, increases in marmoset or coati population are detrimental for local bird populations.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Under its accepted name Artocarpus heterophyllus (then as heterophylla) this species was described in Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3: 209. (1789) by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, from a specimen collected by botanist Philibert Commerson. Lamarck said of the fruit that it was coarse and difficult to digest. "Larmarck's original description of tejas". Retrieved 2012-11-23. On mange la chair de son fruit, ainsi que les noyaux qu'il contient; mais c'est un aliment grossier et difficile à digérer..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ "Name - !Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  3. ^ "TPL, treatment of Artocarpus heterophyllus". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  4. ^ "Name – Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. synonyms". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  5. ^ "Artocarpus heterophyllus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  6. ^ "Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. — The Plant List". Theplantlist.org. 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
  7. ^ "Artocarpus heterophyllus". Tropical Biology Association. October 2006. Archived from the original on 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  8. ^ Love, Ken and Paull, Robert E (June 2011). "Jackfruit" (PDF). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants:Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 107.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Morton, Julia. "Jackfruit". Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  11. ^ "Jackfruit Fruit Facts". California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. 1996. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  12. ^ a b c Silver, Mark. "Here's The Scoop On Jackfruit, A Ginormous Fruit To Feed The World". NPR. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  13. ^ a b c Janick, Jules; Paull, Robert E. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts. p. 155.
  14. ^ The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, By Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull, pp. 481–485
  15. ^ Pradeepkumar, T.; Jyothibhaskar, B. Suma; Satheesan, K. N. (2008). Prof. K. V. Peter, ed. Management of Horticultural Crops. Horticultural Science Series. 11. New Delhi, India: New India Publishing. p. 81. ISBN 978-81-89422-49-3. The English name jackfruit is derived from Portuguese jaca, which is derived from Malayalam chakka.
  16. ^ Friar Jordanus, 14th century, as translated from the Latin by Henry Yule (1863). Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East. Hakluyt Society. p. 13. Retrieved 2012-11-23.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, 1989, online edition
  18. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. Bartleby. 2000. Archived from the original on 2005-11-30.
  19. ^ Stewart, Ralph R. (1984). "How Did They Die?". Taxon. 33 (1): 48–52. doi:10.2307/1222028. JSTOR 1222028.
  20. ^ Ong, B.T.; Nazimah, S.A.H.; Tan, C.P.; Mirhosseini, H.; Osman, A.; Hashim, D. Mat; Rusul, G. (August 2008). "Analysis of volatile compounds in five jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) cultivars using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 21 (5): 416–422. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2008.03.002. Retrieved 2013-02-02.
  21. ^ Spada, Fernanda Papa; et al. (21 January 2017). "Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65 (6): 1196–1208. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.6b04836. PMID 28110526.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
  22. ^ Mwandambo, Pascal (11 March 2014). "Venture in rare jackfruit turns farmers' fortunes around". Standard Online. Standard Group Ltd. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  23. ^ Gene Wu [@@GeneforTexas] (2018-08-21). "Look for this thread later when we do: "You don't know Jackfruit."" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  24. ^ a b Matin, Abdul. "A poor man's fruit: Now a miracle food!". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
  25. ^ Wolff, John U. (1972). "Nangkà". A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan. 2. p. 698.
  26. ^ General information Archived 2009-04-13 at the Wayback Machine., Department of Agriculture, State of Bahia
  27. ^ "Nam O fish sauce village". Danang Today. 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
  28. ^ Preedy, Victor R.; Watson, Ronald Ross; Patel, Vinood B., eds. (2011). Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (1st ed.). Burlington, MA: Academic Press. p. 678. ISBN 978-0-12-375689-3.
  29. ^ "Gỗ mít nài". Nhagoviethung.com. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
  30. ^ Forest Monks and the Nation-state: An Anthropological and Historical Study in Northeast Thailand, J.L. Taylor 1993 p. 218
  31. ^ Subrahmanian, N.; Hikosaka, Shu; Samuel, G. John; Thiagarajan, P. (1997). Tamil social history. Institute of Asian Studies. p. 88. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  32. ^ "Kerala's State fruit!". Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  33. ^ Kothai, S. (2015). "Environmental Impact on Stingless Bee Propolis (Tetragonula iridipennis) Reared from Two Different Regions of Tamilnadu — A Comparative Study". International Journal of ChemTech Research.
  34. ^ Benjamin Elisha Sawe (25 April 2017). "World Leaders In Jackfruit Production". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  35. ^ Haq, Nazmul (2006). Jackfruit: Artocarpus heterophyllus (PDF). Southampton, UK: Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-85432-785-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-05.
  36. ^ a b Goldenberg, Suzanne (23 April 2014). "Jackfruit heralded as 'miracle' food crop". The Guardian, London, UK. Retrieved 17 October 2016.

External links

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackfruit 
  1. Two immiscible liquids, not yet emulsified
  2. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I
  3. The unstable emulsion progressively separates
  4. The surfactant (outline around particles) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase II and Phase I, stabilizing the emulsion
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IUPAC definition
Fluid system in which liquid droplets are dispersed in a liquid.

Note 1: The definition is based on the definition in ref.[1]

Note 2: The droplets may be amorphous, liquid-crystalline, or any
mixture thereof.

Note 3: The diameters of the droplets constituting the dispersed phase
usually range from approximately 10 nm to 100 μm; i.e., the droplets
may exceed the usual size limits for colloidal particles.

Note 4: An emulsion is termed an oil/water (o/w) emulsion if the
dispersed phase is an organic material and the continuous phase is
water or an aqueous solution and is termed water/oil (w/o) if the dispersed
phase is water or an aqueous solution and the continuous phase is an
organic liquid (an "oil").

Note 5: A w/o emulsion is sometimes called an inverse emulsion.
The term "inverse emulsion" is misleading, suggesting incorrectly that
the emulsion has properties that are the opposite of those of an emulsion.
Its use is, therefore, not recommended.[2]

An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable). Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids. Although the terms colloid and emulsion are sometimes used interchangeably, emulsion should be used when both phases, dispersed and continuous, are liquids. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase). Examples of emulsions include vinaigrettes, homogenized milk, mayonnaise, and some cutting fluids for metal working. Graphene and its modified forms are also a good example of recent unconventional surfactants helping in stabilizing emulsion systems.[3]

The word "emulsion" comes from the Latin mulgeo, mulgere "to milk",[specify] as milk is an emulsion of fat and water, along with other components.

Two liquids can form different types of emulsions. As an example, oil and water can form, first, an oil-in-water emulsion, wherein the oil is the dispersed phase, and water is the dispersion medium. (Lipoproteins, used by all complex living organisms, are one example of this.) Second, they can form a water-in-oil emulsion, wherein water is the dispersed phase and oil is the external phase. Multiple emulsions are also possible, including a "water-in-oil-in-water" emulsion and an "oil-in-water-in-oil" emulsion.[4]

Emulsions, being liquids, do not exhibit a static internal structure. The droplets dispersed in the liquid matrix (called the “dispersion medium”) are usually assumed to be statistically distributed.

The term "emulsion" is also used to refer to the photo-sensitive side of photographic film. Such a photographic emulsion consists of silver halide colloidal particles dispersed in a gelatin matrix. Nuclear emulsions are similar to photographic emulsions, except that they are used in particle physics to detect high-energy elementary particles.

Appearance and properties

Emulsions contain both a dispersed and a continuous phase, with the boundary between the phases called the "interface".[citation needed] Emulsions tend to have a cloudy appearance because the many phase interfaces scatter light as it passes through the emulsion. Emulsions appear white when all light is scattered equally. If the emulsion is dilute enough, higher-frequency (low-wavelength) light will be scattered more, and the emulsion will appear bluer – this is called the "Tyndall effect".[citation needed]If the emulsion is concentrated enough, the color will be distorted toward comparatively longer wavelengths, and will appear more yellow. This phenomenon is easily observable when comparing skimmed milk, which contains little fat, to cream, which contains a much higher concentration of milk fat. One example would be a mixture of water and oil.[citation needed]

Two special classes of emulsions – microemulsions and nanoemulsions, with droplet sizes below 100 nm – appear translucent.[5] This property is due to the fact that light waves are scattered by the droplets only if their sizes exceed about one-quarter of the wavelength of the incident light. Since the visible spectrum of light is composed of wavelengths between 390 and 750 nanometers (nm), if the droplet sizes in the emulsion are below about 100 nm, the light can penetrate through the emulsion without being scattered.[6] Due to their similarity in appearance, translucent nanoemulsions and microemulsions are frequently confused. Unlike translucent nanoemulsions, which require specialized equipment to be produced, microemulsions are spontaneously formed by “solubilizing” oil molecules with a mixture of surfactants, co-surfactants, and co-solvents.[5] The required surfactant concentration in a microemulsion is, however, several times higher than that in a translucent nanoemulsion, and significantly exceeds the concentration of the dispersed phase. Because of many undesirable side-effects caused by surfactants, their presence is disadvantageous or prohibitive in many applications. In addition, the stability of a microemulsion is often easily compromised by dilution, by heating, or by changing pH levels.[citation needed]

Common emulsions are inherently unstable and, thus, do not tend to form spontaneously. Energy input – through shaking, stirring, homogenizing, or exposure to power ultrasound[7] – is needed to form an emulsion. Over time, emulsions tend to revert to the stable state of the phases comprising the emulsion. An example of this is seen in the separation of the oil and vinegar components of vinaigrette, an unstable emulsion that will quickly separate unless shaken almost continuously. There are important exceptions to this rule – microemulsions are thermodynamically stable, while translucent nanoemulsions are kinetically stable.[5]

Whether an emulsion of oil and water turns into a "water-in-oil" emulsion or an "oil-in-water" emulsion depends on the volume fraction of both phases and the type of emulsifier (surfactant) (see Emulsifier, below) present.[citation needed] In general, the Bancroft rule applies. Emulsifiers and emulsifying particles tend to promote dispersion of the phase in which they do not dissolve very well. For example, proteins dissolve better in water than in oil, and so tend to form oil-in-water emulsions (that is, they promote the dispersion of oil droplets throughout a continuous phase of water).[citation needed]

The geometric structure of an emulsion mixture of two lyophobic liquids with a large concentration of the secondary component is fractal: Emulsion particles unavoidably form dynamic inhomogeneous structures on small length scale. The geometry of these structures is fractal. The size of elementary irregularities is governed by a universal function which depends on the volume content of the components. The fractal dimension of these irregularities is 2.5.[8]

Instability

Emulsion stability refers to the ability of an emulsion to resist change in its properties over time.[9][10] There are four types of instability in emulsions: flocculation, creaming, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening. Flocculation occurs when there is an attractive force between the droplets, so they form flocs, like bunches of grapes. Coalescence occurs when droplets bump into each other and combine to form a larger droplet, so the average droplet size increases over time. Emulsions can also undergo creaming, where the droplets rise to the top of the emulsion under the influence of buoyancy, or under the influence of the centripetal force induced when a centrifuge is used.[9] Creaming is a common phenomenon in dairy and non-dairy beverages (i.e. milk, coffee milk, almond milk, soy milk) and usually does not change the droplet size.[11]

An appropriate "surface active agent" (or "surfactant") can increase the kinetic stability of an emulsion so that the size of the droplets does not change significantly with time. It is then said to be stable.[citation needed] For example, oil-in-water emulsions containing mono- and diglycerides and milk protein as surfactant showed that stable oil droplet size over 28 days storage at 25°C.[11]

Monitoring physical stability

The stability of emulsions can be characterized using techniques such as light scattering, focused beam reflectance measurement, centrifugation, and rheology. Each method has advantages and disadvantages.[citation needed]

Accelerating methods for shelf life prediction

The kinetic process of destabilization can be rather long – up to several months, or even years for some products.[citation needed] Often the formulator must accelerate this process in order to test products in a reasonable time during product design. Thermal methods are the most commonly used – these consist of increasing the emulsion temperature to accelerate destabilization (if below critical temperatures for phase inversion or chemical degradation).[citation needed] Temperature affects not only the viscosity but also the inter-facial tension in the case of non-ionic surfactants or, on a broader scope, interactions of forces inside the system. Storing an emulsion at high temperatures enables the simulation of realistic conditions for a product (e.g., a tube of sunscreen emulsion in a car in the summer heat), but also to accelerate destabilization processes up to 200 times.[citation needed]

Mechanical methods of acceleration, including vibration, centrifugation, and agitation, can also be used.[citation needed]

These methods are almost always empirical, without a sound scientific basis.[citation needed]

Emulsifiers

An emulsifier (also known as an "emulgent") is a substance that stabilizes an emulsion by increasing its kinetic stability. One class of emulsifiers is known as "surface active agents", or surfactants. Emulsifiers are compounds that typically have a polar or hydrophilic (i.e. water-soluble) part and a non-polar (i.e. hydrophobic or lipophilic) part. Because of this, emulsifiers tend to have more or less solubility either in water or in oil.[citation needed] Emulsifiers that are more soluble in water (and conversely, less soluble in oil) will generally form oil-in-water emulsions, while emulsifiers that are more soluble in oil will form water-in-oil emulsions.[citation needed]

Examples of food emulsifiers are:

Detergents are another class of surfactant, and will interact physically with both oil and water, thus stabilizing the interface between the oil and water droplets in suspension. This principle is exploited in soap, to remove grease for the purpose of cleaning. Many different emulsifiers are used in pharmacy to prepare emulsions such as creams and lotions. Common examples include emulsifying wax, polysorbate 20, and ceteareth 20.[12]

Sometimes the inner phase itself can act as an emulsifier, and the result is a nanoemulsion, where the inner state disperses into "nano-size" droplets within the outer phase. A well-known example of this phenomenon, the "Ouzo effect", happens when water is poured into a strong alcoholic anise-based beverage, such as ouzo, pastis, absinthe, arak, or raki. The anisolic compounds, which are soluble in ethanol, then form nano-size droplets and emulsify within the water. The resulting color of the drink is opaque and milky white.

See also: food emulsifiers explained, in the Simple English Wikipedia

Mechanisms of emulsification

A number of different chemical and physical processes and mechanisms can be involved in the process of emulsification:[citation needed]

  • Surface tension theory – according to this theory, emulsification takes place by reduction of interfacial tension between two phases
  • Repulsion theory – the emulsifying agent creates a film over one phase that forms globules, which repel each other. This repulsive force causes them to remain suspended in the dispersion medium
  • Viscosity modification – emulgents like acacia and tragacanth, which are hydrocolloids, as well as PEG (or polyethylene glycol), glycerine, and other polymers like CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose), all increase the viscosity of the medium, which helps create and maintain the suspension of globules of dispersed phase

Uses

In food

Oil-in-water emulsions are common in food products:

  • Crema (foam) in espresso – coffee oil in water (brewed coffee), unstable emulsion
  • Mayonnaise and Hollandaise sauces – these are oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with egg yolk lecithin, or with other types of food additives, such as sodium stearoyl lactylate
  • Homogenized milk – an emulsion of milk fat in water, with milk proteins as the emulsifier
  • Vinaigrette – an emulsion of vegetable oil in vinegar, if this is prepared using only oil and vinegar (i.e., without an emulsifier), an unstable emulsion results

Water-in-oil emulsions are less common in food, but still exist:

Other foods can be turned into products similar to emulsions, for example meat emulsion is a suspension of meat in liquid that is similar to true emulsions.

Health care

In pharmaceutics, hairstyling, personal hygiene, and cosmetics, emulsions are frequently used. These are usually oil and water emulsions but dispersed, and which is continuous depends in many cases on the pharmaceutical formulation. These emulsions may be called creams, ointments, liniments (balms), pastes, films, or liquids, depending mostly on their oil-to-water ratios, other additives, and their intended route of administration.[13][14] The first 5 are topical dosage forms, and may be used on the surface of the skin, transdermally, ophthalmically, rectally, or vaginally. A highly liquid emulsion may also be used orally, or may be injected in some cases.[13] Popular medications occurring in emulsion form include[15]cod liver oil, Polysporin, cortisol cream, Canesten, and Fleet.

Microemulsions are used to deliver vaccines and kill microbes.[16] Typical emulsions used in these techniques are nanoemulsions of soybean oil, with particles that are 400–600 nm in diameter.[17] The process is not chemical, as with other types of antimicrobial treatments, but mechanical. The smaller the droplet the greater the surface tension and thus the greater the force required to merge with other lipids. The oil is emulsified with detergents using a high-shear mixer to stabilize the emulsion so, when they encounter the lipids in the cell membrane or envelope of bacteria or viruses, they force the lipids to merge with themselves. On a mass scale, in effect this disintegrates the membrane and kills the pathogen. The soybean oil emulsion does not harm normal human cells, or the cells of most other higher organisms, with the exceptions of sperm cells and blood cells, which are vulnerable to nanoemulsions due to the peculiarities of their membrane structures. For this reason, these nanoemulsions are not currently used intravenously (IV). The most effective application of this type of nanoemulsion is for the disinfection of surfaces. Some types of nanoemulsions have been shown to effectively destroy HIV-1 and tuberculosis pathogens on non-porous surfaces.

In firefighting

Emulsifying agents are effective at extinguishing fires on small, thin-layer spills of flammable liquids (class B fires). Such agents encapsulate the fuel in a fuel-water emulsion, thereby trapping the flammable vapors in the water phase. This emulsion is achieved by applying an aqueous surfactant solution to the fuel through a high-pressure nozzle. Emulsifiers are not effective at extinguishing large fires involving bulk/deep liquid fuels, because the amount of emulsifier agent needed for extinguishment is a function of the volume of the fuel, whereas other agents such as aqueous film-forming foam need cover only the surface of the fuel to achieve vapor mitigation.[18]

Chemical synthesis

Emulsions are used to manufacture polymer dispersions – polymer production in an emulsion 'phase' has a number of process advantages, including prevention of coagulation of product. Products produced by such polymerisations may be used as the emulsions – products including primary components for glues and paints. Synthetic latexes (rubbers) are also produced by this process.

See also

References

  1. ^ IUPAC (1997). Compendium of Chemical Terminology (The "Gold Book"). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Slomkowski, Stanislaw; Alemán, José V.; Gilbert, Robert G.; Hess, Michael; Horie, Kazuyuki; Jones, Richard G.; Kubisa, Przemyslaw; Meisel, Ingrid; Mormann, Werner; Penczek, Stanisław; Stepto, Robert F. T. (2011). "Terminology of polymers and polymerization processes in dispersed systems (IUPAC Recommendations 2011)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 83 (12): 2229–2259. doi:10.1351/PAC-REC-10-06-03.
  3. ^ Kumar, Harish V.; Woltornist, Steven J.; Adamson, Douglas H. (2016-03-01). "Fractionation and characterization of graphene oxide by oxidation extent through emulsion stabilization". Carbon. 98: 491–495. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2015.10.083.
  4. ^ Khan, A. Y.; Talegaonkar, S; Iqbal, Z; Ahmed, F. J.; Khar, R. K. (2006). "Multiple emulsions: An overview". Current Drug Delivery. 3 (4): 429–43. doi:10.2174/156720106778559056. PMID 17076645.
  5. ^ a b c Mason TG, Wilking JN, Meleson K, Chang CB, Graves SM (2006). "Nanoemulsions: Formation, structure, and physical properties" (PDF). Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 18 (41): R635–R666. Bibcode:2006JPCM...18R.635M. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/18/41/R01.
  6. ^ Leong TS, Wooster TJ, Kentish SE, Ashokkumar M (2009). "Minimising oil droplet size using ultrasonic emulsification". Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 16 (6): 721–7. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.02.008. PMID 19321375.
  7. ^ Kentish, S.; Wooster, T.J.; Ashokkumar, M.; Balachandran, S.; Mawson, R.; Simons, L. (2008). "The use of ultrasonics for nanoemulsion preparation". Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 9 (2): 170–175. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2007.07.005.
  8. ^ Ozhovan M.I. (1993). "Dynamic uniform fractals in emulsions" (PDF). J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 77 (6): 939–943. Bibcode:1993JETP...77..939O.
  9. ^ a b McClements, David Julian (16 December 2004). Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices, and Techniques, Second Edition. Taylor & Francis. pp. 269–. ISBN 978-0-8493-2023-1.
  10. ^ Silvestre, M.P.C.; Decker, E.A.; McClements, D.J. (1999). "Influence of copper on the stability of whey protein stabilized emulsions". Food Hydrocolloids. 13 (5): 419. doi:10.1016/S0268-005X(99)00027-2.
  11. ^ a b Loi, Chia Chun; Eyres, Graham T.; Birch, E. John (2019). "Effect of mono- and diglycerides on physical properties and stability of a protein-stabilised oil-in-water emulsion". Journal of Food Engineering. 240: 56–64. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2018.07.016. ISSN 0260-8774.
  12. ^ Anne-Marie Faiola (2008-05-21). "Using Emulsifying Wax". TeachSoap.com. TeachSoap.com. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  13. ^ a b Aulton, Michael E., ed. (2007). Aulton's Pharmaceutics: The Design and Manufacture of Medicines (3rd ed.). Churchill Livingstone. pp. 92–97, 384, 390–405, 566–69, 573–74, 589–96, 609–10, 611. ISBN 978-0-443-10108-3.
  14. ^ Troy, David A.; Remington, Joseph P.; Beringer, Paul (2006). Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy (21st ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 325–336, 886–87. ISBN 978-0-7817-4673-1.
  15. ^ Aymal et al. (2001). Senior Science HSC 2. Australia: Pearson.
  16. ^ "Adjuvant Vaccine Development". Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
  17. ^ "Nanoemulsion vaccines show increasing promise". Eurekalert! Public News List. University of Michigan Health System. 2008-02-26. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  18. ^ Friedman, Raymond (1998). Principles of Fire Protection Chemistry and Physics. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-0-87765-440-7.

Other sources

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emulsion 
A dish of pickled spicy seaweed

Edible seaweed, or sea vegetables, are algae that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food. They typically contain high amounts of fiber.[1][2] They may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae.[1]

Seaweeds are also harvested or cultivated for the extraction of polysaccharides [3] such as alginate, agar and carrageenan, gelatinous substances collectively known as hydrocolloids or phycocolloids. Hydrocolloids have attained commercial significance, especially in food production as food additives.[4] The food industry exploits the gelling, water-retention, emulsifying and other physical properties of these hydrocolloids.[5]

Most edible seaweeds are marine algae whereas most freshwater algae are toxic. Some marine algae contain acids that irritate the digestion canal, while some others can have a laxative and electrolyte-balancing effect.[6] Most marine macroalgae are nontoxic in normal quantities, but members of the genus Lyngbya are potentially lethal.[7] Typically poisoning is caused by eating fish which have fed on Lyngbya or on other fish which have done so.[7] This is called ciguatura poisoning.[7] Handling Lyngbya majuscula can also cause seaweed dermatitis.[8] Some species of Desmarestia are highly acidic, with vacuoles of sulfuric acid that can cause severe gastrointestinal problems.[7]

The dish often served in western Chinese restaurants as 'Crispy Seaweed' is not seaweed but cabbage that has been dried and then fried.[9]

Distribution

Seaweeds are used extensively as food in coastal cuisines around the world. Seaweed has been a part of diets in China, Japan, and Korea since prehistoric times.[10] Seaweed is also consumed in many traditional European societies, in Iceland and western Norway, the Atlantic coast of France, northern and western Ireland, Wales and some coastal parts of South West England,[11] as well as Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador. The Māori people of New Zealand traditionally used a few species of red and green seaweed.[12]

Nutrition and uses

Seaweed contains high levels of iodine relative to other foods.[13] In the Philippines, Tiwi, Albay residents created a new pancit or noodles made from seaweed, which can be cooked into pancit canton, pancit luglug, spaghetti or carbonara and is claimed to have health benefits such as being rich in calcium, magnesium and iodine.[14]

One study in 2014 pointed to certain species of seaweed as being a possible vegan source of biologically-active Vitamin B12. The study noted that B-12 was found in both raw and roasted seaweed, the latter containing about half as much—but still a sufficient amount. 4 grams of dried purple laver was considered sufficient to meet the RDA for B-12.[15]

Polysaccharides in seaweed may be metabolized in humans through the action of bacterial gut enzymes. Such enzymes are frequently produced in Japanese population due to their consumption of seaweeds.[16]

In some parts of Asia, nori 海苔 (in Japan), zicai 紫菜 (in China), and gim 김 (in Korea), sheets of the dried red alga Porphyra are used in soups or to wrap sushi or onigiri. Chondrus crispus (commonly known as Irish moss) is another red alga used in producing various food additives, along with Kappaphycus and various gigartinoid seaweeds.

Japanese cuisine has seven types of seaweed identified by name, and thus the term for seaweed in Japanese is used primarily in scientific applications, and not in reference to food.

Seaweed oil

Seaweed oil, also called Algae oil, are used for making food.[19] Seaweed oil is also used as a source of fatty acid dietary supplement, as it contains mono- and polyunsaturated fats, in particular EPA and DHA, both of them Omega-3 fatty acids .[20] Its DHA content is roughly equivalent to that of salmon based fish oil.[21][22]

Seaweed oil is also used for biofuel, massage oil, soaps, and lotions.

Common edible seaweeds

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Garcia-Vaquero, M; Hayes, M (2016). "Red and green macroalgae for fish and animal feed and human functional food development". Food Reviews International. 32: 15–45. doi:10.1080/87559129.2015.1041184..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ K.H. Wong, Peter C.K. Cheung (2000). "Nutritional evaluation of some subtropical red and green seaweeds: Part I — proximate composition, amino acid profiles and some physico-chemical properties". Food Chemistry. 71 (4): 475–482. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00175-8.
  3. ^ Garcia-Vaquero, M; Rajauria, G; O'Doherty, J.V; Sweeney, T (2017-09-01). "Polysaccharides from macroalgae: Recent advances, innovative technologies and challenges in extraction and purification". Food Research International. 99 (Pt 3): 1011–1020. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2016.11.016. hdl:10197/8191. ISSN 0963-9969. PMID 28865611.
  4. ^ Round F.E. 1962 The Biology of the Algae. Edward Arnold Ltd.
  5. ^ Garcia-Vaquero, M; Lopez-Alonso, M; Hayes, M (2017-09-01). "Assessment of the functional properties of protein extracted from the brown seaweed Himanthalia elongata (Linnaeus) S. F. Gray". Food Research International. 99 (Pt 3): 971–978. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2016.06.023. hdl:10197/8228. ISSN 0963-9969. PMID 28865623.
  6. ^ Wiseman, John SAS Survival Handbook
  7. ^ a b c d Turner, Nancy J.; von Aderkas, Patrick (2009). "3: Poisonous Plants of Wild Areas". The North American Guide to Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms. Portland, OR: Timber Press. pp. 115–6. ISBN 9780881929294. OCLC 747112294.
  8. ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6.
  9. ^ Hom, Ken (2012). "Crisp Seeweed". Good Food Channel. UK TV.CO.UK. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  10. ^ "Seaweed as Human Food". Michael Guiry's Seaweed Site. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
  11. ^ "Spotlight presenters in a lather over laver". BBC. 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
  12. ^ "Kai Recipe's used by Kawhia Maori & Early Pioneers". Kawhia.maori.nz. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
  13. ^ "Micronutrient Information Center: Iodine". Oregon State University: Linus Pauling Institute. 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
  14. ^ "Albay folk promote seaweed 'pansit'". ABS-CBN Regional Network Group. 2008-04-08. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
  15. ^ Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei (2014-05-05). "Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians". Nutrients. 6 (5): 1861–1873. doi:10.3390/nu6051861. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 4042564. PMID 24803097.
  16. ^ Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Correc, Gaëlle; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan (8 April 2010). "Transfer of carbohydrate-active enzymes from marine bacteria to Japanese gut microbiota". Nature. 464 (7290): 908–912. Bibcode:2010Natur.464..908H. doi:10.1038/nature08937. PMID 20376150.
  17. ^ Dawes, Clinton J. (1998). Marine botany. New York: John Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-19208-4.
  18. ^ Lato, the strange sea salad The trade of the Caulerpa lentillifera in Coron, Philippines
  19. ^ New Culinary Trend: Cooking with Algae Oil
  20. ^ Scott D. Doughman, Srirama Krupanidhi, Carani B. Sanjeevi (2007). "Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Nutrition and Medicine: Considering Microalgae Oil as a Vegetarian Source of EPA and DHA". Current Diabetes Reviews. 3 (3): 198–203. doi:10.2174/157339907781368968. PMID 18220672.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  21. ^ Arterburn, LM (July 2008). "Algal-Oil Capsules and Cooked Salmon: Nutritionally Equivalent Sources of Docosahexaenoic Acid". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 108 (7): 1204–1209. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.020. PMID 18589030. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  22. ^ Lenihan-Geels, G; Bishop, K. S.; Ferguson, L. R. (2013). "Alternative Sources of Omega-3 Fats: Can We Find a Sustainable Substitute for Fish?". Nutrients. 5 (4): 1301–1315. doi:10.3390/nu5041301. PMC 3705349. PMID 23598439.
  23. ^ Harrison, M. (2008). "Edible Seaweeds around the British Isles". Wild Food School. Retrieved 2011-11-11.

External links

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edible_seaweed